German expressionist painter and printmaker, whose artworks convey his pessimistic view of society. Born in Leipzig, he was trained at the Weimar Academy of Art and worked at first in an impressionist style. His horrifying experience as a medical corpsman in World War I (1914-1918) led him to produce highly dramatic and energetic paintings characterized by heavy outlines, areas of harsh color, and an unrelenting savagery. The Nazis ousted
ax Beckmann from his art professorship at the Studel School of Art in Frankfurt as a "degenerate." In 1937, on hearing that his work would be included in the Nazi Degenerate Art Exhibition, he immigrated to Amsterdam, and in 1947 he went to the United States. Max Beckmann taught at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, from 1947 to 1949, then moved to New York City, where he died the following year.
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